Skip to main content


Glutamates: natural and safe

By Sue Klapholz, MD, PhD — VP of Nutrition & Health, Impossible Foods.

Foods that have natural occurring glutamates

Glutamates are a natural and abundant part of our diet.¹ Yet, glutamates, and particularly monosodium glutamate or MSG, have gotten a bad rap since the late 1960s when MSG was posited to be the cause of a complex of symptoms that includes numbness and heart palpitations (see further below).² Some grocery stores still place MSG and other glutamates on their lists of “not allowed” ingredients. Is there a rational basis for concern? This blog explores the facts and fallacies surrounding glutamates.

What are glutamates?

Proteins are composed of 20 amino acids, in various proportions.³ And virtually all foods that contain protein contain the amino acid glutamic acid. In fact, glutamic acid is often the most abundant amino acid present in protein.³ ⁴ When protein is digested in our bodies, glutamic acid and other free amino acids are released. Glutamic acid is the “acid form” of glutamate, meaning it has an extra hydrogen (Figure 1). Physiologic conditions (e.g., those found in the human digestive tract) favor the conversion of glutamic acid to glutamate, making glutamate the form that is normally found in our bodies.

Figure 1Under physiologic conditions, glutamic acid loses a hydrogen ion (H+) to yield glutamate.

Glutamic acid is absolutely essential for life. It is a building block for new protein synthesis, an excitatory neurotransmitter (see further below) and a precursor of another neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).⁴ ⁵ It plays a key role in the removal of excess nitrogen from the body, in the synthesis of glutathione — an important antioxidant, and in the synthesis of many other amino acids, including glutamine, arginine and proline.⁴ ⁵ 95% of dietary glutamate is metabolized by cells in the intestine, where it serves as an important source of energy for these cells.³ ⁶

Natural sources of glutamate in our diet: During digestion, protein is broken down into amino acids, making dietary protein by far the largest contributor to free glutamate in the gut.³ Certain foods, for example, ripe tomatoes, contain an abundance of free glutamate — glutamate that is not part of protein.⁷ Some other common natural sources of free glutamate in our diet are grape juice, potatoes, broccoli, fish, parmesan cheese, and mushrooms.⁸ ⁹ ¹⁰ ¹¹ Fermented foods, such as soy sauce and miso, are particularly rich in free glutamate.⁸ ¹¹Yeast extract, an ingredient in which the proteins are physically or chemically broken down (e.g., by hydrolysis), is another plentiful source of free glutamate.¹ ¹¹Human breast milk contains a substantial amount of free amino acids, of which glutamate is the most abundant.¹² ¹³ In fact, glutamate concentration in breast milk increases significantly during the first three months of lactation.¹² ¹³

Glutamate salts: Sometimes free glutamate or glutamate salts are added to food to enhance umami (savory) flavor.¹¹ ¹⁴ MSG is the sodium salt of glutamate, meaning that it has an added sodium (Na) ion that readily separates from glutamate when it dissolves in water (Figure 2). Likewise, monopotassium glutamate (MPG) is the potassium salt of glutamate. Other glutamate salts include: calcium glutamate, magnesium glutamate and monoammonium glutamate.¹¹ Commercially manufactured glutamate salts are products of microbial fermentation.¹⁵ ¹⁶ As with glutamic acid, all glutamate salts are converted to glutamate in our bodies, and all glutamate molecules that enter our bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract are structurally identical.⁹ ¹⁷

Bottom line: Regardless of the source, glutamate is glutamate — there is no difference between the glutamate in your body that was derived from MSG, hydrolyzed yeast extract, tomatoes or pea protein.

Figure 2: Glutamate is derived from glutamic acid from digested proteins, free glutamic acid, and glutamate salts such as MSG and MPG.

How much glutamate do we consume?

MSG is what many people think of when considering glutamate consumption. But the average daily intake of MSG that has been added to food is estimated at 0.55 g in the US and 0.4 g in Europe.¹ ¹⁸ To put these typical Western dietary levels of MSG in perspective, one cup of dried tomatoes contain between 0.35 and 0.62 g of free glutamate.⁸ In Asian countries, consumption of MSG is substantially higher — ranging from 1.5 to 4.6 g per day. ¹⁹

According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the average American adult consumes 13 g of glutamate per day from protein in food.¹ In European countries, the total daily intake of glutamate occurring naturally in food ranges from 5 to 12 g per day, with about 10 g from protein and 1 g as free glutamate.¹⁸ Glutamates in the Impossible Burger come from protein and free glutamates. Per 4-oz serving, the Impossible Burger has 4.5 g of total glutamate, in between the amount of total glutamate found in lean ground beef (3.5 g)²¹ and sharp Cheddar cheese (6.4 g).²¹

Bottom line: Relative to the total glutamate intake from all dietary sources, free glutamic acid and glutamate salts make a relatively small contribution.

How much glutamate is safe to consume?

Both the FDA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/ World Health Organization (WHO) have concluded that the levels of glutamic acid and glutamate salts typically consumed pose no risk to public health or safety¹ ²² ²³, and neither organization has set an upper limit for glutamate intake. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), on the other hand, proposed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for free glutamate and glutamate salts of 30 mg per kg-body weight.¹⁵ For a 150-lb person, this would be about 2 g per day. This ADI has been criticized for being much lower than scientific evidence would indicate is warranted .²⁴ For example, it has been demonstrated that breast-fed infants consume 4.5 times more free glutamate than the EFSA’s ADI.¹³ Finally, it has been pointed out that free glutamate and glutamate salts make only a “marginal contribution” to total dietary glutamate intake.¹⁰ While not all regulatory authorities agree on whether free glutamates should be limited, human studies have shown that extremely high levels of free glutamic acid (137 g per day) can be ingested for 30 days or longer with no ill effect.²⁵ This is because our bodies are great at regulating the amount of glutamate in our blood. When glutamate is consumed at higher levels than the body needs, it is metabolized in the intestines and converted to carbon dioxide or other amino acids, keeping the level of glutamate in the blood remarkably constant, between 50 and 100 µM.⁵ ¹⁵ ²⁶

Bottom line: The metabolism of glutamate and its physiological effects have been extensively studied. These studies provide abundant evidence for its safety at doses far exceeding what any human encounters in the diet.

Are some people sensitive to MSG (and other glutamates)?

In a letter to the New England Journal of Medicine in 1968, Dr. Ho Man Kwok described experiencing numbness, weakness and palpitations about 15–20 minutes after eating Chinese restaurant food.² He suggested some possible causes, such as an ingredient in the soy sauce or cooking wine or MSG. Others have gone on to attribute symptoms of headache, asthma, hives, runny nose, muscle twitching and chest pain to MSG ingestion.⁹ ²⁷ However, well-controlled scientific studies have failed to produce consistent evidence that MSG causes these symptoms in the general population or even in people who self-identify as MSG-sensitive.²³ ²⁷ ²⁸ A 2016 paper reviewed the connection between MSG and headache; the authors separated studies into two groups: those in which MSG or placebo was taken with a meal and those in which MSG or placebo was taken (in a strongly flavored beverage or broth) on an empty stomach.²⁸ In the former, the typical amount of MSG was 3 g, in the latter it was 5 g. In all studies, the doses were substantially higher than the 0.4–0.55 g of MSG consumed daily in the average Western diet. When MSG was taken with food, four of five studies showed no significant difference between placebo and MSG, and a fifth study only showed significantly more headaches in female, but not male, participants. When taken on an empty stomach, results were mixed: some studies showed no significant differences between response to MSG vs. placebo, while others showed more headache symptoms after ingesting MSG. However, a much repeated criticism of studies of MSG taken without food is that the characteristic strong flavor of MSG is difficult to mask, unblinding the subjects to its identity and potentially leading to bias.²⁹ Even in people who self-identify as MSG sensitive, studies have failed to provide reproducible evidence of an MSG effect.¹⁸ ²⁷ ²⁹ ³⁰ ³¹ The authors of the largest and most comprehensive of such studies concluded that “…large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. However, the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent and were not reproducible.”¹⁷ ²⁷ In other words, they did not pass the basic test of scientific credibility — reproducibility. Furthermore, the same test subjects failed to respond when MSG was given with food.¹⁷ ²⁷ A systematic review of over 60 studies that purported to examine the effects of MSG ingestion on asthma failed to demonstrate a link, however only two studies met the reviewers’ rigorous inclusion criteria.³² A recent placebo-controlled study of individuals who self-reported an irregular heartbeat, atrial fibrillation (AF), in association with MSG consumption, demonstrated no association between AF and doses of 3 g of MSG.³¹

Bottom line: There is no reproducible scientific evidence that the general population or even self-identified MSG-sensitive individuals, are adversely affected by ingestion of MSG with food or on an empty stomach. There is also no evidence that MSG should be avoided in asthmatics or in individuals with AF.

Does MSG cause neuroexcitation or neurotoxicity?

In addition to being an amino acid, glutamate is a neurotransmitter³³, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system.⁴ ³⁴ Glutamate in the brain is either synthesized in the brain or obtained from the recycling of brain proteins.²⁶ ³⁵ Levels of glutamate in the brain (10,000–12,000 µM) are at least 100 times higher than circulating blood levels (50–100 µM).²⁶ Because of the blood-brain barrier (which prevents many substances in the bloodstream from entering the brain), levels of glutamate in the blood do not affect levels of glutamate in the brain.²⁶ ³⁵ Under certain pathological conditions (e.g., ischemic stroke), release of glutamate from brain cells can occur, leading to extreme excitation of nerve cells. However, in these cases, the excess glutamate comes from within the brain itself, not from the diet.²⁶ ³⁵ There is no evidence of brain damage in humans resulting from dietary glutamate.³⁴

Bottom line: Glutamate in the brain is synthesized in the brain. Dietary glutamate does not influence levels of glutamate in the brain, nor does it play a role in neuroexcitation due to pathological conditions such as stroke.


Glutamate is essential for life and is ubiquitous in food. Extensive scientific studies of the effects of dietary glutamate have found no evidence for harmful effects of any kind, even at implausibly high doses.


  1. Questions and answers on monosodium glutamate (MSG). U.S. Food & Drug Administration. November 19, 2012. Available at: in a new tab), Accessed June 24, 2020.

  2. Kwok RH. Chinese-restaurant syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1968;278(14):796. doi:10.1056/nejm196804042781419

  3. Wu G. Dietary protein intake and human health. Food Funct. 2016;7(3):1251–1265. doi:10.1039/c5fo01530h

  4. Wikipedia contributors. Glutamic acid. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. May 25, 2020, 13:17 UTC. Available at: in a new tab). Accessed June 24, 2020.

  5. Burrin DG, Stoll B. Metabolic fate and function of dietary glutamate in the gut. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(3):850S-856S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27462Y.

  6. Reeds PJ, Burrin DG, Stoll B, Jahoor F. Intestinal glutamate metabolism. J Nutr. 2000;130(4S Suppl):978S-82S. doi:10.1093/jn/130.4.978S

  7. Oruna-Concha MJ, Methven L, Blumenthal H, Young C, Mottram DS. Differences in glutamic acid and 5'-ribonucleotide contents between flesh and pulp of tomatoes and the relationship with umami taste. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(14):5776–5780. doi:10.1021/jf070791p

  8. Hendrick T. Monosodium glutamate 101: What foods naturally contain MSG. MSG Dish. July 24, 2018. Available at: in a new tab). Accessed June 24, 2020.

  9. Raitan DJ, Talbot JM, Fisher KD (eds.). Analysis of adverse reactions to monosodium glutamate (MSG). FASEB (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology) 1995. In: American Institute of Nutrition, Bethesda, MD. pp. 1–324. Available at: in a new tab). Accessed June 24, 2020.

  10. Tennant DR. Review of Glutamate Intake from Both Food Additive and Non-Additive Sources in the European Union. Ann Nutr Metab. 2018;73 Suppl 5:21–28. doi:10.1159/000494778

  11. Wikipedia contributors. Glutamate flavoring. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. June 22, 2020, 13:10 UTC. Available at: in a new tab). Accessed June 24, 2020.

  12. Agostoni C, Carratù B, Boniglia C, Lammardo AM, Riva E, Sanzini E. Free glutamine and glutamic acid increase in human milk through a three-month lactation period. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;31(5):508–512. doi:10.1097/00005176–200011000–00011

  13. Koletzko B. Glutamate Supply and Metabolism in Infants. Ann Nutr Metab. 2018;73 Suppl 5:29–35. doi:10.1159/000494780

  14. Umami basics: What is umami? Umami Information Center. Available at: in a new tab). Accessed June 24, 2020.

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS), Mortensen A, Aguilar F, Crebelli R, Di Domenico A, Dusemund B, Frutos MJ, et al: Re-evaluation of glutamic acid (E 620), sodium glutamate (E 621), potassium glutamate (E 622), calcium glutamate (E 623), ammonium glutamate (E 624) and magnesium glutamate (E 625) as food additives. EFSA J2017;15 (7):4910.

  16. Wikipedia contributors. Monosodium glutamate. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. June 15, 2020, 18:34 UTC. Available at: in a new tab). Accessed June 24, 2020.

  17. Geha RS, Beiser A, Ren C, et al. Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Nutr. 2000;130(4S Suppl):1058S-62S. doi:10.1093/jn/130.4.1058S

  18. Beyreuther K, Biesalski HK, Fernstrom JD, et al. Consensus meeting: monosodium glutamate — an update [published correction appears in Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;61(7):928]. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61(3):304–313. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602526

  19. FECYT — Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology. Receptor activated exclusively by glutamate discovered on tongue. ScienceDaily. October 10, 2009. Available at: in a new tab). Accessed June 24, 2020.

  20. Why all of the fuss about MSG? Tribune Content Agency. Environmental Nutrition. May 20, 2019. Available at:,naturally%20occurring%20glutamate%20from%20food(opens in a new tab). Accessed June 24, 2020.

    1. U.S. Department of Agriculture. FoodData Central. Available at: in a new tab) (93% lean, 7% fat beef) & in a new tab) (sharp Cheddar cheese). Accessed June 24, 2020.

  21. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (1988) L-glutamic acid and its ammonium, calcium, monosodium and potassium salts. In: Toxicological Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 97–161

  22. Walker R, Lupien JR. The safety evaluation of monosodium glutamate. J Nutr. 2000;130(4S Suppl):1049S-52S. doi:10.1093/jn/130.4.1049S

  23. Roberts A, Lynch B, Rietjens IMCM. Risk Assessment Paradigm for Glutamate. Ann Nutr Metab. 2018;73 Suppl 5:53–64. doi:10.1159/000494783

  24. Bazzano G, D’Elia JA, Olson RE. Monosodium glutamate: feeding of large amounts in man and gerbils. Science. 1970;169(3951):1208–1209. doi:10.1126/science.169.3951.1208

  25. Hawkins RA. The blood-brain barrier and glutamate. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(3):867S‐874S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27462BB

  26. Geha RS, Beiser A, Ren C, et al. Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-challenge evaluation of reported reactions to monosodium glutamate. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106(5):973–980. doi:10.1067/mai.2000.110794

  27. Obayashi Y, Nagamura Y. Does monosodium glutamate really cause headache? : a systematic review of human studies. J Headache Pain. 2016;17:54. doi:10.1186/s10194–016–0639–4

  28. Freeman M. Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: a literature review. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2006;18(10):482–486. doi:10.1111/j.1745–7599.2006.00160.x

  29. Yang WH, Drouin MA, Herbert M, Mao Y, Karsh J. The monosodium glutamate symptom complex: assessment in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99(6 Pt 1):757–762. doi:10.1016/s0091–6749(97)80008–5

  30. van den Berg NWE, Neefs J, Berger WR, et al. Can we spice up our Christmas dinner? : Busting the myth of the ‘Chinese restaurant syndrome’. Neth Heart J. 2017;25(12):664–668. doi:10.1007/s12471–017–1053–5

  31. Zhou Y, Yang M, Dong BR. Monosodium glutamate avoidance for chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(6):CD004357. Published 2012 Jun 13. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004357.pub4

  32. Frothingham S. Excitatory Neurotransmitters. Healthline. December 12, 2018. Available at: in a new tab). Accessed August 3, 2020.

  33. Meldrum, B. S. (2000). “Glutamate as a neurotransmitter in the brain: Review of physiology and pathology”. The Journal of Nutrition. 130 (4S Suppl): 1007S–1015S. doi(opens in a new tab)10.1093/jn/130.4.1007s(opens in a new tab)

  34. Smith QR. Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier. J Nutr. 2000;130(4S Suppl):1016S-22S. doi:10.1093/jn/130.4.1016S